Beth yw Tafodiaith?


Amrywiadau oddi mewn i un iaith yw ei thafodiaith. Yn aml iawn bydd gennym enwau ar dafodieithoedd y byddwn yn eu hystyried yn wahanol i'r hyn a glywir mewn ardaloedd cyfagos. Sonnir , er enghraifft, am "iaith Shir Gar"; "iaith y Rhos", ac, yn ddiweddar, "siarad Gog".
Ond er bod gwahaniaethau yn llafar pobl wahanol rannau o'r wlad, yr ydym yn derby nein bod i gyd yn siarad Cymraeg.
Daw cyfeirio at ffurfioli iaith a ni at ystyriaeth hanfodol wrth drafod tafodiaith, sef perthynas iaith a'r gymdeithas sydd yn ei ddefnyddio. Nid mewn gwagle y mae iaith yn bod: pobl sydd yn ei siarad. Dros ganrifoedd lawer y datblygodd pob tafodiaith, ac yn ystod y cyfnod hwnnw bu ar bob un ddylanwadau lu. Gall nodweddion tafodiaith, felly, adlewyrchu'r cysylltiadau a fu rhwng ei siaradwyr a phobl o ardaloedd eraill, a'u mynd a dod o ardal i ardal.
Yng nghyd-destun tafodieithoedd y Gymraeg, bu cryn drafod am gydberthynas ffiniau tafodieithol ac eiddo hen unedau gweinyddol yr Oesoedd Canol. Gwir graidd y broblem, mae'n debyg, yw'r berthynas rhwng y ffiniau hyn a'r nodweddion daearyddol sydd yn isorweddol i'r ddau. Hyd at yn gymharol ddiweddar cyfyngid yn sylweddol ar gyfathrachu pobl o wahanol ardaloedd a'i gilydd gan rwystrau naturiol fel mynyddoedd uchel ac afonydd  anodd eu croesi.
Erbyn heddiw, gyda'r gwella a fu mewn trafnidiaeth a chyfathrebu, nid yw rhwystrau daearyddol mor bwysig a buont. Aeth y boblogaeth yn fwy symudol a'r dylanwadau arni yn fwy amrywiol: mae addysg Gymraeg (ar lefelgynradd, o leiaf) ar drothwy'r rhan fwyaf ohonom, ac -os caniatawn iddi - daw S4C ag acenion o bob rhan o'r wlad i'n haelwydydd yn feunyddiol. Yr un pryd, darfu am genhedlaeth uniaith Gymraeg, fel nad oes gan y rhan fwyaf gyfle i glywed ac etifeddu y math o iaith lawn a rhywiog a nodweddai bob pentref yn y gorffennol.
Dr. Beth Thomas
Peter Wynn Thomas
'Cymraeg, Cymrg, Cymrg: Cyflwyno'r Tafodieithoedd' (Gwasg Taf 1989).

What Is A Dialect?


Dialects are variations which occur within a language. We frequently give names to dialects which we consider to be different from that which is heard in the local area; for example, we talk of iaith Shir Gr (Carmarthenshire language) and iaith y Rhos (Rhosllanerchrugog language), and, more recently "siarad Gog" (speaking North Walian). However, we accept that all these varieties of spoken Welsh are valid representations of the same language, and that they are all part of Cymraeg or Welsh.
A crucial consideration when discussing dialect is the relationship of the language with the community which uses it. Language does not exist in a vacuum; it is devised and used by people. Dialects have developed over hundreds of years, and the influences on them have been many and varied.
Essentially, dialect can reflect the contact that has existed between its speakers and people from other areas, and their coming and going from place to place. When discussing Welsh dialect, much has been made of the supposed relationship between dialect boundaries and administrative boundaries in the Middle Ages. It would appear though that the root of the problem lies in the relationship between these boundaries and the geographical features which underlie them. It ought to be borne in mind that until comparatively recent times, natural barriers such as high mountains and wide rivers made it difficult for people from different areas to communicate effectively.
Modern improvements in transport and communications have made these geographical features less relevant, the population has become more mobile and the influences on this population have become more varied. Welsh-language education is quite widely available, and S4C beams the accents and styles of the whole country into our living-rooms on a daily basis. At the same time, the monoglot culture has disappeared, taking with it, to a large extent, the opportunity of hearing and learning the kind of language that was such a characteristic aspect of all our towns and villages.
Dr. Beth Thomas
Peter Wynn Thomas
'Cymraeg, Cymrg, Cymrg: Cyflwyno'r Tafodieithoedd' (Gwasg Taf, 1989)

Rita Rosser